^ Jump up to: a b c d e Golden, T. D.; Veiga, J. F.; Dino, R. N. (2008). "The impact of professional isolation on teleworker job performance and turnover intentions: Does time spent teleworking, interacting face-to-face, or having access to communication-enhancing technology matter?". Journal of Applied Psychology. 93 (6): 1412–1421. doi:10.1037/a0012722. PMID 19025257.
These work arrangements are more likely to become more popular with current trends towards greater customization of services and virtual organizing. Distributed work offers great potential for firms to reduce costs, enhance competitive advantage and agility, access a greater variety of scarce talents, and improve employee flexibility, effectiveness and productivity. It has gained in popularity in the West, particularly in Europe. While increasing in importance, distributed work has not yet gained widespread acceptance in Asia.
A person who telecommutes is known as a "telecommuter", "teleworker", and sometimes as a "home-sourced", or "work-at-home" employee. A telecommuter is also called a "telecommuting specialist", as a designation and in a professional context. Many telecommuters work from home, while others, sometimes called "nomad workers" work at coffee shops or other locations. The terms "telecommuting" and "telework" were coined by Jack Nilles in 1973.
Communication personalized for individual needs is important for feedback interactions. People differ in their need for communication and their level of social connectedness to their environment, partially because of personality and temperament differences. Although the level of communication may decrease for teleworkers, satisfaction with this level of communication can be higher in some samples, like those who are more tenured and have functional instead of social relationships. Feedback and communication can also be affected by a manager’s location. The clarity, speed of response, richness of the communication, frequency, and quality of the feedback are often reduced when managers telework.
Virtual assistants, commonly referred to as VAs, come in all shapes and sizes. Many companies will hire VAs if they are looking for help with online administrative tasks (email, calendar management, data entry, etc), but don’t necessarily want to hire a full time employee just yet. They’re the perfect work from home job for busy people that may need to drop their work at a moments notice, or have very sporadic availability.