In the 1990s, telecommuting became the subject of pop culture attention. In 1995, the motto that "work is something you do, not something you travel to" was coined. Variations of this motto include: "Work is something we DO, not a place that we GO" and "Work is what we do, not where we are." Telecommuting has been adopted by a range of businesses, governments and not-for-profit organizations. Organizations may use telecommuting to reduce costs (telecommuting employees do not require an office or cubicle, a space which has to be rented or purchased, provided with lighting and climate control, etc.). Some organizations adopt telecommuting to improve workers' quality of life, as teleworking typically reduces commuting time and time stuck in traffic jams. As well, teleworking may make it easier for workers to balance their work responsibilities with family roles (e.g., caring for children or elderly parents). Some organizations adopt teleworking for environmental reasons, as telework can reduce congestion and air pollution, as it can reduce the number of cars on the roads.
According to the job characteristic theory, the relationship between characteristics of the job and job satisfaction was moderately strong. Of the five task characteristics, autonomy has a strong relationship with job satisfaction such that greater autonomy leads to greater job satisfaction. Teleworkers may have increased satisfaction due to the flexibility and autonomy their jobs provide. Teleworkers were found to have higher satisfaction than office based workers. It was found that autonomy increased teleworkers' satisfaction by reducing work-family conflicts, especially when workers were allowed to work outside traditional work hours and be more flexible for family purposes. Additionally, autonomy explained an increase in employee engagement when the amount of time spent teleworking increased. Furthermore, a study from FlexJobs that surveyed over 3000 people found that 81 percent of respondents also said they would be more loyal to their employers if they had flexible work options.
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